Perfect Bath

Close this search box.

Medical Studies on Far Infrared Heat Therapy by Dr. Lobay

The Sauna – Studies of Sauna treatment and physiology by Dr. Douglas Lobay

INFRARED SAUNA Benefits and Cautions Medical Studies

compiled by Dr. Douglas Lobay, B.Sc., N.D.
October 2004
This paper provides of an overview of the use of the therapeutic benefits of infrared sauna radiation and human health. It provides of brief discussion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the biophysics of heating and heating agents and the use of sauna therapy and specifically infrared radiation saunas.


Heat is a form of energy called thermal energy. Heat is transferred from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature. Thermal energy can be thought of as molecular vibrations. When thermal energy is transferred to a substance, molecular vibrations excite electrons on the atomic structure. The motion of the molecules and their electrons causes emission of electromagnetic waves to adjacent structures. Waves are emitted in discrete packets called photons. Both the average
energy of the photons and their rate of emission increase as the temperature of the source is increased. Photons of a particular energy have a characteristic wavelength and frequency. Absorption of photons by a substance leads to an increase in its thermal
energy level.


Vibrations of molecules give rise to photons that have different frequencies and wavelengths. Frequency is the number of waves emitted in a particular time period. Hertz is the unit of measurement of frequency and is defined as the number of wave
cycles per second. Wavelength is the horizontal distance between crests of adjacent waves. Wavelengths are measured in nanometres and are abbreviated nm. One nanometre equals on thousand millionth of a metre or 1 x 10 to the minus ninth of a


Photons exert electric and magnetic forces and give rise to what is called the electromagnetic spectrum. Photons vary in both frequencies and wavelengths. Examples of electromagnetic waves include television, radar, microwaves, infrared waves, visible
light waves, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays and cosmic waves. Different wavelengths delineate different portions of the electromagnetic spectra. Radio waves have a wavelength between 10 to 1000 metres. Microwaves have a wavelength between 1
millimetre to 10 metres. Infrared waves have a wavelength between 700 to 15,000 nanometres. Visible light waves have a wavelength between 390 to 700 nanometres. Ultraviolet waves have a wavelength between 180 to 390 nanometres. X-rays have a wavelength less than 180 nanometres. wavelength less than 180 nanometres.


All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light; 300,000 kilometres per second or 186,000 miles per second. The speed of light is constant and is the product of the frequency of the electromagnetic wave times the wavelength. Therefore, frequency
varies inversely with the wavelength. The higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength and conversely the lower the frequency the longer the wavelength. Therefore, radio waves which have a longer wavelength should have a lower frequency.
X-rays, which have a shorter wavelength tend to have a higher frequency.


Infrared waves are a small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum that have a wavelength between 700 to 15,000 nanometres and a frequency between 1 x 10 power of 12 to 1 x 10 power 14.


The term core temperature refers to the interior temperature of the human body. The core temperature is tightly regulated and doesn’t very that much. It is controlled through a variety of neuro-hormonal mechanisms that keep the core temperature
equilibrated. Core temperature is regulated at 37 degrees Celsius. The core temperature is regulated accurately and does not normally vary from the mean by more than 0.1 degrees Celsius. Oral temperature is at least 0.6 degrees lower than rectal temperature and is affected by many factors including the ingestion of food, hot and cold beverages, environment, humidity, exercises, stress, infection and changes in heart rate. Skin temperature, unlike core temperature, can vary considerably in responses to different external stimuli and internal stressors. Various parts of the body have slightly different temperatures. The extremities are slightly cooler than the midsection.


The parameters that determine the extent of the physiological response of the body to heat include: the size of the area exposed, intensity of radiation, relative depths of absorption of the specific radiation, the integrity of the cardiovascular and the nervous
systems, structure of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, age of the patient, the nervous system, the hormonal system, functioning thermo-regulatory centre in the hypothalamus of the brain, thermal conductivity of the tissue being irradiated and duration of the radiation applied. The effects of heat on the tissues of the body is often the result of the interplay of local and general factors.


Warmth is associated with tranquility and relaxation. Heating injured tissue has been used for centuries for pain relief and reduction of muscle spasm. In physical rehabilitation, locally applied heating agents are used not only to promote relaxation,
but also to increase blood flow, to facilitate tissue healing and to prepare tight muscle and stiff joints for exercise. There are numerous thermal agents available for tissue heating. These generally fall within one of two categories: superficial and deep heating agents. Superficial or surface heat agents such as hot packs, paraffin and infrared penetrate less than 2 centimetres depth. Deep heating agent such as diathermies and ultrasound can penetrate 3 to 15 centimetres depth. Many physiological reactions occur as a result of temperature increase on parts of the body. The most relevant changes include an increase in metabolic activity, cardiovascular activity, nervous system response, skeletal muscle activity, and collagen connective tissue changes.


Metabolic rate will increase two to three times normal for every 10 degree Celsius rise in temperature. Energy expenditure will increase with increasing temperature. Cellular oxygen uptake will also increase and will be available for tissue repair. As core
temperature reaches a certain point, usually 45 to 50 degrees Celsius, human tissues will burn because of thermally induced protein denaturation.


Blood flow to an area will increase as a result of vasodilation caused by temperature increase. Blood flow to the skin has an important purpose of regulating core body temperature, much like a radiator system. The flow of blood through the cutaneous
blood vessels of the skin is not adjusted primarily to the requirements of the skin for oxygen, but rather to the functional requirements of the body for dissipation or conservation of heat. If core body temperature begins to rise, there is a corresponding vasodilation of skin blood vessels to dissipate some of the core body heat. There are three mechanisms that
control vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels. One is the sympathetic adrenergic nervous system. That is part of the nervous system that deals with “flight or flight” response to a stressor. Under a stressful circumstance, hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by the body. These hormones act on peripheral blood vessels, including the skin, and cause
vasoconstriction. Suppression of the sympathetic adrenergic nervous system can cause a corresponding relaxation of peripheral blood vessels leading to vasodilation. The second mechanism controlling vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels is the heatloss
area of the brain located in the hypothalamus. Sensory nerves in the skin and core body supply temperature information to the hypothalamus which works like a thermostat. If the hypothalamus senses an increase in temperature it signals reflex
vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels. The third mechanism of controlling dilation of peripheral blood vessels is a localized
reflex mediated by sensory nerves located in the skin. When a temperature increase is sensed by a peripheral nerve a localized reflex causes automatic vasodilation of the affected area. Heat also produces the release of chemicals that cause vasodilation
including histamine, prostaglandins, kallikrein and bradykinin. The net effect is that heat causes peripheral vasodilation of skin blood vessels.


Heat is used therapeutically to provide pain relief, analgesia and relax muscle spasms. Although the mechanisms of action has not been completely elucidated, heat has the ability to elevate the pain threshold through a variety of different mechanisms. Heat can alter nerve conduction velocity, neuro-hormonal reflexes and change muscle tone. The net effect is that pain decreases and muscles relax.


Temperature can alter the visco-elastic qualities of connective tissue. Heat applied to connective can increase the viscosity of connective tissue which leads to elongation, particularly after a stretch is applied. Joint stiffness is a common complaint of
osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other degenerative diseases. Joint stiffness is believed to be caused by in-elasticity of joint structure, particularly the connective tissue components. Localized heating applied to a joint can decrease pain, improve joint stiffness and increase the extensibility of the joint by increasing connective tissue viscosity. The net effect is reduced pain and improved mobility of the affected joint.


The local effects of heat lead to vasodilation of blood vessels of the skin up to 42 degrees Celsius. Blood flow to the skin can increase four to five times resting levels. There is ample evidence to prove the blood flow to muscles is not increased by the local
application of heat. The rate of metabolism of skin or muscle depends in part on temperature. Metabolism can increase two to three times that of resting level from thermal stimuli. The speed of cellular oxidation can increase with temperature. Within
the electromagnetic spectrum , the band of wavelengths that produce thermal sensation is between 700 to 100,000 nanometres. Heat produces definite sedative effects in the body. Skin temperature above 45 degrees Celsius can evoke pain sensation. Local
heating promptly opens the arteriovenous shunts in the skin.


Different heating modalities can have different depths of penetration depending the thermal modality used and the part of the body to which is applied. High water content tissues such as the skin, muscle liver, kidney, blood and heart absorb heat quickly . Low water content tissues such as bone and fat poorly absorb heat. Subcutaneous fat tends to a thermal barrier and does not conduct heat effectively.


Most radiant heat sources such as sunshine, open fires, heated stones, irons and steam saunas emit varying degrees of infrared radiations. Infrared radiations occupy a small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum having wavelengths from 700 to 15,000
nanometres. Infrared radiations are further classified according to their distance from the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum has wavelengths from 390 to 770 nanometres. Near or short infrared rays have wavelengths from 770 to 4000 nanometres. Far or long infrared waves have wavelengths from 4000 to 15,000 nanometres.


There are three methods of transferring electromagnetic energy from one substance to another: convection, conduction and radiation. Convection transfers electromagnetic energy through an intermediate substance such as ambient air. A distant energy source heats up ambient air particles. The air particles move around and come in contact with another substance, such as the person. The air particles transfer their thermal energy to the substance. Conduction conducts electromagnetic energy through direct contact of one substance to another. When one substance having higher thermal energy comes in contact with another substance of lower thermal energy and thermal gradient is created. Thermal energy is transferred from one substance to another of lower energy by direct contact. Radiant transfer of electromagnetic energy does not depend on a conductive medium nor by direct contact. Radiant energy transfers energy by electromagnetic waves. Infrared red radiation depends less on conduction and convection and utilizes radiant energy. One of the main advantages of infrared radiation is that you don’t have to heat up the source of thermal energy, nor the ambient air to the same degree as a conductive or convective method of heat transfer. You can still transfer thermal energy to a substance by radiation without using a higher temperature that you would otherwise use with conductive and convective methods.


Infrared rays are produced when an object is heated above absolute zero. All incandescent bodies found in light bulbs, such as tungsten and carbon filament lamps produced some infrared radiations. All objects that generate infrared rays along with some visible light are called luminous sources of infrared rays. An electric current passed through a copper wire generates some heat primarily in the form of infrared rays. All objects that generate infrared rays without visible light are called non-luminous sources of infrared rays.


All radiations that strike the body must be reflected, absorbed or transmitted. For therapeutic benefit most rays must be absorbed by the body. There are many factors that can influence infrared ray absorption, including the frequency or wavelength of the rays, the thermal conductivity of the tissues, the density of the tissue, specific heat of each tissue, angle of the incidence rays, distance from the source of the infrared rays, patency of the circulation and the source of the infrared rays. It is important to note that maximal absorption of infrared rays occurs when the rays are perpendicular to the absorptive surface. As the angle of incidence increases, so does the refection of the rays.


Depth of penetration is a relative term. Short or near infrared waves of wavelengths from 770 to 440 nanometres penetrate about 3 millimetres below the surface of the skin. Long or far infrared waves penetrate less than 1 millimetre depth below the skin
surface. The relative thickness of the layers of skin, the patency of skin circulation, and the quantity of underlying fat will affect penetration of infrared rays. The density of the connective tissue and fat below the skin surface will affect the absorption of the rays. Generally fat and connective tissue impede thermal conductivity. The intensity of the rays varies inversely with the depth of absorption. This means that even though some rays may penetrate deeper their relative intensity may be poor, not strong enough to illicit a physiological reaction.


Infrared generators are classified as luminous or non-luminous, depending if they produce some light in the visible spectrum. They are all generally light weight and portable. They come in various sizes and shapes, have different levels of energy output
from 250 to 1000 watts. Non-luminous generators consist of a resistance wire coiled on a cylinder of insulating material such as clay or porcelain or a plate of resistance metal. The resistance wire serves as the heater and the cylinder or plate becomes the radiant source. Infrared rays are emitted from the heat from the resistance wire. Infrared waves are transferred to the cylinder or plate and is heated by conduction. Generally, non-luminous infrared generator emit wavelengths between 770 nanometres and 15,000 nanometres. Maximum emission is between 3500 and 4000 nanometres. There is a minimal emission of waves in the short infrared spectrum. Luminous generators consist of gases and hot bodies that emit visible rays in the spectrum of 392 to 800 nanometres. Incandescent lamps containing tungsten or carbon filaments emit these visible rays plus a large proportion of infrared rays. Lamps generally come in different sizes and shapes. The power output varies from 100 to 1500 watts. The luminous generators emits up to 70% short infrared waves and less than 30% long infrared waves.


Infrared rays have the immediate effect of producing heat wherever they are absorbed. The amount of temperature rise is dependent on different factors including the source of infrared rays, the distance to the patient, the tissue being irradiated and the circulatory response. The main effects of infrared rays are due to the moderate temperature rise at superficial levels. It is a slow rise with a minimal thermal gradient. The temperature rise at deeper dermis levels is not more than 2 degrees Celsius and about 1 to 2 degrees in the superficial dermis.


Both the long and the short infrared rays stimulate the sensory nerves, and can thus reduce pain and spasm. The underlying physiological mechanism of this is not fully known. Perhaps the raised temperature decreases gamma fibre activity. Usually a fast warming of the muscle spindle causes a temporary inhibition of its activity.


If skin temperature is raised above core temperature, cutaneous vasodilation occurs to help distribute the heat more evenly. There is some conduction of heat to the deeper levels, but unless muscle is very superficially places, there is no vasodilation in muscles. Circulation in superficial joints may be increased refexly. Heat causes the liberation of histamine-like substances which act on the capillaries to dilate them. The heat regulating centre in the brain send signals to the capillaries to dilate them.


An increase in temperature creates superficial inflammation on just below the skin surface. Heating activates white blood cells to eat up or phagocytize inflammatory residue such as bacteria, dead cells, or pus fluid. The white blood cells can help to drain
carbuncles or furuncles around the skin.


Infrared rays can be applied to one area of the body can cause reflex heating in another distant area of the body. For instance, infrared heat applied to the abdomen can distant area of the body. For instance, infrared heat applied to the abdomen can
increase peripheral circulation in the legs. The physiological basis of is that heating of the large spanchnic vessels in the abdomen stimulates the heat centre in the brain, which then reflexly open peripheral vessels in an effort to regulate body temperature quickly.


Infrared rays cause a reddening of the skin, which is a gentle erythema that disappears once the heat is dissipated.


There is an increase in sweat gland activity both locally to the applied heat and reflexly by stimulation by the heat regulating centre in the brain. Infrared, unlike ultraviolet light, does not cause tanning or burning of the skin.


If heating is given to a large area of the body for a prolonged period, as in the use of an infrared sauna, there is a fall in blood pressure, due to generalized vasodilation and reduction of peripheral resistance in the arterioles.


There five main indications for the use of infrared sauna: pain and muscle spasm, edema and swelling, healing of wound and chronic suppurative areas, detoxification and socialization. The use of infrared radiation will cause a reduction of pain and muscle spasm in superficial areas. It should not be used in acute trauma in the first 24 hours, but can be used later. The luminous lamp is more effective than the non-luminous lamp. Increased vasodilation will improve circulation, remove pain and inflammation metabolites and break the cycle of pain and muscle spasm. In cases of chronic edema or swelling of the hand, arm. foot and leg, if the exudate is mild and not tenacious, infrared radiation along with elevation of the affected part will
result in capillary vasodilation. Infrared radiation also aids in the healing of indolent wounds by its vasodilatory effects.
For cases of slow healing post-operative wounds, infrared rays can be used to improve healing time.


Caution must be used in individuals with impaired nerve sensation on the skin. Care must be taken of applying infrared rays to areas of poor circulation and thrombi. Care must be taken in applying heat to individuals with dermatological conditions such as
fungal infections. No metal, such as jewellery or necklaces should be in the field of the infrared radiations. Caution must be used in individuals with surgically implanted metal screws and plates. Caution should be used in applying intense infrared radiations over the eyes. Caution should be used with elderly patients in general, especially the weak and infirm with compromised cardiovascular function. If individuals are on prescription narcotics and pain killers caution should be used when applying infrared heat. Caution should be used in individuals who have received radiation therapy in the last three months. They may have impaired thermoregulatory sensation. Most topical creams and ointments should be removed prior to applying infrared radiation. Individuals with skin tumours, such as carcinoma and melanoma should not receive strong doses of infrared
radiation. Caution should be used in individuals with acute infections, whether respiratory or skin. Individuals on blood pressure medicines should be monitored for unusual blood pressure changes. And finally, caution should be used in individuals with
compromised cardiac function, such as congestive heart failure.


The temperature of the skin increases to over 40 degrees Celcsus, but after the sweating has started, usually in three to five minutes, the temperature declines and starts to rise slowly again. The temperature in deeper parts of the body increases much
less; in the rectum and esophagus the temperature is around 37.5 to 38 degrees after a twenty minute sauna.


The increased temperature dilates cutaneous capillary blood vessels and to maintain sufficient cardiac output increases two to three times normal. Considerable redistribution of cardiac output take place. Normally the skin blood flow is 5 to 10% of
cardiac output, but can increases to 50 to 70% in a sauna. Correspondingly, the blood flow to inner organs and muscles decreases. The changes of blood pressure are moderate. Most often a small decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure takes
place. During the cooling period, especially if it happens vigorously in a cold shower or by swimming in ice cold water, blood pressure rapidly increases. The increase of cardiac load in the sauna is similar to that seen during brisk walking exercise.


The average fluid loss during a sauna bath is 500 millilitres or 500 mg of sweat. It corresponds to less than 1.0% of total body weight. Sweat contains less salt than blood and thus mild sauna can increase blood levels of sodium and potassium. The
concentration of hemoglobin can increase temporarily. Taken together, fluid loss during  an ordinary sauna bath is relatively small and it can easily be compensated by drinking a couple of glasses of water. Sauna therapy does not induce significant changes in blood coagulation.


Sauna affects the endocrine system in many ways. According to most sauna studies, sauna stimulates the production of the hormones, noradrenaline, prolactin, growth hormone, cardiac natriuretic peptide and activates the renin-angiotensin,-aldosterone system. The findings on ACTH or adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol in inconsistent and not changes seem to take place in adrenaline, FSH, LH, testosterone or thyroid hormones.


The scientific literature is inconclusive with respect to longevity and sauna. Regular sauna therapy has been widely touted by peoples of Finland for many health benefits. The people of Finland are among the longest lived people in the world. Many people in Finland are regular sauna bathers. How much of their longevity is due to regular sauna baths remains to be proven.


High temperatures for prolonged periods can induce congenital malformations in some pregnant experimental animals including spina bifida and anencephaly. Caution should be exercises in pregnant females who engage in sauna therapy. Limitations in both the frequency, intensity and duration of sauna therapy may be employed. One study in Finland showed no connection between sauna and congenital malformation in pregnant females.


There were some earlier concerns about the incidence of sauna therapy and the development of lung cancer. Some individuals proposed the breathing dust from sauna baths could be carcinogenic. A Finnish study showed that there was no association
between sauna therapy and the development of lung cancer.


There were some concerns about the use of sauna of individuals with heart attack and/or congestive heart failure. No strong association was found in some studies between the use of sauna and the development of heart attacks. Caution should be used
in individuals with congestive heart failure who have particularly decompensated hearts and the duration and intensity of sauna treatment.


Some regular sauna users contend that regular sauna use prevents the common cold. In one small, controlled study regular sauna bathing twice per week for six months lead to a 30% reduction in the incidence of cold episodes. In the study, 22 kindergarten children who took a weekly sauna for 18 months had reduced incidence of colds, flu and ear infection. Obviously further studies would be necessary to prove this benefit.


Numerous scientific studies show that sweat can contain significant levels of heavy or toxic metals. Minerals such as sodium, chloride, iron, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, cadmium and zinc have been quantified in sweat. When compared to
urine, sweat contained higher concentrations of nickel and cadmium and the same concentration for lead. Negligible effects on calcium, magnesium and potassium were observed. The content of sweat mimics the serum in the blood minus the plasma
proteins. Therefore, it can be assumed that other factors in the blood can be found in sweat. Higher levels of urea and uric acid have been detected in sweat. Negligible amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides have been observed.


Sauna improves blood vessel tone, otherwise known as vascular endothelial function. Upregulation of vascular endothelial nitric oxide has been observed. Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator. As thermal energy promotes cutaneous vasodilation based on a
number of different mechanisms, there is a probably and an increased sensitivity to nitric oxide. As a result, less nitric oxide may be required to cause vasodilation than before.


Sauna treatment can lower blood pressure. Changes in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures have been observed with sauna therapy. While more pronounced during and shortly after sauna treatment a generalized trend of lowering blood pressure has been observed. One study showed that systolic pressure decreased an average of 6 percent. Diastolic pressure decreased an average of 4%. Heart rate increased an average of 32% above resting heart rate. Resting heart rate returned to normal after sauna treatment was finished. No arrhythmias or EKG changes were detected. Myocardial ischemia or decreased blood flow to the heart, was observed on nuclear scintigraphic imaging. The myocardial ischemia induced while undergoing sauna treatment was equivalent to exercise-induced ischemia. No clinical symptoms, such as angina, were observed with the myocardial ischemia. The implications of this study are that sauna therapy will increase heart rate temporarily, decrease blood pressure temporarily while causing a temporary reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle. In individuals with stable coronary angina sauna therapy was generally well tolerated with no significant side effects. However, caution should be exercised in individuals with unstable coronary angina who might otherwise undergo sauna treatments. Another study shows that cardiac function can actually improve with repetitive sauna treatments in individuals with class II and class III congestive heart failure.


Sauna has been widely touted as an effective means of detoxification. The skin is the largest organ in the body has been widely touted as an effective means of detoxification by means of sweating thru the skin. It is responsible in part for detoxification. In several studies significant increases in the heavy metal concentration of sweat has been observed in individuals undergoing sauna treatment. Sauna is usually recommended as part of detoxification procedure in individuals with heavy metal toxicity. There are many other toxins in the environment that can pollute the human body. Numerous pesticides and pesticides have been found in tissue samples of the human body. Toxic chemicals such as DDT, DDE and PCB’s have also been found in tissue samples. While many of these toxins are water soluble some are lipophyllic or fat soluble. Many of the exposed toxins have accumulated in fat tissue throughout the body. Theoretically mobilizing these toxins through sauna induced sweating creates a concentration gradient that allows the migration of these toxins through the excretory organs such as the skin. Many anecdotal
reports of individuals and health practitioners about sauna-induced detoxification are rife in the media and internet. However, good scientific data about non-heavy metal toxins such as herbicides, pesticides and the like is lacking. Further scientific studies
evaluating the fat-soluble concentration of these toxins is necessary to determine the effectiveness of sauna therapy as an agent for detoxification.


Sauna therapy provides some level of pain relief and reduction in inflammation. The exact degree of pain relief and reduction in inflammation is highly variable, depending on the person, the nature of the problem, the location and other physical factors.
Infrared radiation has been utilized in some form since the early 1900’s. Treatment of post-acute trauma responds well to heat and infrared therapy. Transient decrease in pain and inflammation has been observed in individuals in chronic pain such as
osteoarthritis. Improvement and relief of chronic muscular problems has been observed with infrared treatment. Other improvement in soft tissue, such as ligaments and tendons has been observed with infrared treatment.


Then there is the social and stress-reduction benefits of sauna therapy. Sauna therapy, whether infrared or not, can be a good social outing. The use of sauna therapy as a means of community socialization has been engrained in many cultures throughout the world. It can also help to relax from the demands of our busy secular lifestyles. It can help tense muscles to relax and offer a meditative environment removed the busy world outside.


Infrared Sauna therapy isolates a specific range of the electromagnetic spectrum just below the visible spectrum. Infrared uses radiant energy to heat up the body. One major advantage of infrared sauna therapy over the traditional heat sauna is that the temperature need not be that high to achieve therapeutic benefit. While many steam saunas require a temperature of over 60 degrees Celsius, infrared sauna temperatures range from 38 to 60 degrees. Infrared sauna therapy can be easily tolerated by
individuals who are heat sensitive or who suffer from heart disease or general debility. The main therapeutic uses of infrared sauna are for reduction of pain and inflammation, detoxification and socialization. Benefits to the cardiovascular system, lymphatic, endocrine and immune system have been observed. Additional benefits include an improvement in general health and well being.


Wadsworth, Hilary and Chanmugan A.P.P: Electrophysical Agents in Physiotherapy, 2nd
edition, Science Press, Australia, 1983.
Michlovitz, Susan L: Thermal Agents in Rehabilitation, 2nd edition., CPR-Contemporary
Perspectives in Rehabilitation, F.A. Dauix Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986.
Perspectives in Rehabilitation, F.A. Dauix Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986.
Finnish Medical Society, Sauna and Your Health: Annals of Clinical Research, 16
technical articles distributed by the Sauna Society of America.
Finnish Sauna Society, Sauna Studies, professional papers from the 6th International
Sauna Congress of 1974, distributed by the Sauna Society of America.
Guyton A: A Textbook of Medical Physiology, 7th edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986.
Masuda A. et al: Repeated sauna therapy induces urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F. Japan
Heart Journal 2004 March; 45(2); 297-303.
Ikeda Y. et al: Repeated thermal therapy upregulates arterial endothelial nitric oxide
sythase espression in Syrian golden hamsters. Japan Circulation Journal 2001
Imamura M et al: Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial
function in patients with coronary risk factors. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Oct:38(4):1038-8.
Gutierrez E and Vasquez R: Heat in the treatment of patients of anorexia nervosa. Eat
weight disord 2001 Mar;6(1);49-52.
Rissman A. et al: Infant’s physiological response to short heat stress during sauna bath.
Klin Padiatr 2002 May-Jun;214(3);132-5.
Kihara T et al: Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac
function in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Mar 6;39(5):754-
Papp A: Sauna-related burns: a review of 154 cases treated in Kuopio University
Hospital Burn Center 1994-2000. Burns 2002 Feb;28(1):57-9.
Yamamoto T et al: Effect of sauna bathing and beer ingestion on plasma concentrations
of purine bases. Metabolism 2004 Jun;53(60:772-6.
Vahasoini A et al: Unreported sauna use in anorexia nervosa. Eat Weight Disord 2004
Gutierrez E et al: Do people with anorexia nervosa use sauna baths? A reconsideration
of heat-treatment in anorexia nervosa. Eat Behav 2002 Summer;3(2)133-42.
Bakulin VS and Makarov VI: Criteria for regulating the amount of thermal load in using a
sauna. Fiziol Cheloveka 1999 Nov-Dec;25(6):118-22.
Gianetti N et al: Sauna-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery
disease. AM J Med 1999 Sep 107(3)228-33.
Ikeda Y et al: Effect of repeated sauna therapy on survival in TO-2 cardiomyopathic
masters with heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2002 Aug 1;90(3):343-5.
Lister NA et al: Variability of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 Gene Detected in Samples
from Men Tested in Male-Only Saunas in Melbourne Australia. J Clin Microbiol 2004
Armada-Da-Silva PA et al: The effect of passive heating and face cooling on perceived
exertion during exercise in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004 May; 91(5-6)-563-71.
Servidio MF et al: Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using
bioelectric impedance analysis. Acta Diabetol 2003 Oct;40 Suppl 1:S207-9.
Gutierrez A et al: Sauna-induced rapid weight loss decreases explosive power in women
but not in men. Int J Sport Med 2003 Oct;24(7):518-22.
Guha M: Sauna imporves endothelial function. MMW Fortschr Med 2001 Nov
Hannuksela ML and Ellahham S: Benefits and risks of sauna bathing. Am J Med 2001
Feb 1;110(2)118-26.
Bocci V et al: Quasi-total-body exposure to an oxygen-ozone mixture in a sauna cabin.
Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999 Nov-Dec;80(6):549-54.
Bievenu B and Timsit J: Sauna-induced diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care 1999
Kath R et al: Thermal baths or sauna us in patients with tumors. Dtsch Med Wochenschr
1999 Mar 12;124(10):302.
Ovaska L and Hakamies L: Speechless visitor in the Sauna. Duodecim
Matos T el al: High prevalence of neurotrope Exophiala dermatitidis and related
oligotrophic black yeasts in sauna facilities. Mycoses 2002 Nov;45(9-10)-373-7.
Hedley AM et al: The effects of acute heat exposure on musclure strength, muscular
endurance, and muscular power in the euhydrated athlete. J Strength Cond Res 2002
Baggett HC et al: Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
associated with antiobiotic use and the cytotoxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin during a
furunculosis outbreak in rural Alaska. J Infect Dis 2004 May 1;189(9):1565-73.
Papp AA and Alhava EM: Sauna-bathing with sutures. Scand J Surg 2003;92(2):175-7.
Hoishi A et al: Concentrations of trace elements in sweat during sauna bathing. Tohoku
J exp Med 2001 Nov;195(3):163-9.
Atkinson HG: Is it true that saunas are dangerous for some people? Health News
Pashkov VK et al: The sauna in the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis. Vopr
Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2000 Jul-AUg;(4):37-9.
Keast ML and Adamo KB: The Finnish sauna bath and its use in patients with
cardiovascular disease. J Cardiopulm rehabil 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):225-30.
Sherson DL and Stopford W: Mercury levels of sweat. Its use in the diagnosis and
treatment of poisoning. Ugeskr Laeger. 1986 Jun 30;148(27):1683-3.
Stauber JL and Florence TM: A comparative study of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in
human sweat and blood. Sci Total Environ. 1988 Aug 1;74:235-47.
Seutter E and Sutorius AH: The quantitative analysis of some constituents of crude
sweat. II. Zinc, copper, iron, sialic acid content and oxidative activity. Dermatologica.
Gutteridge JM et al: copper and iron complexes catalytic for oxygen radical reactions in
sweat from human athletes. Clin Chim Acta. 1985 Feb 15;145(3);267-73.
Waller MF and Haymes EM: The effect of heat and exercise on sweat iron loss. Med Sci
Sports Exerc. 1996 Feb;28(2):197-203.
Cohn JR and Emmett EA: The excretion of trace metals in human sweat. Ann Clin Lab
Sci. 1978 Jul-Aug; 8(4)270-5.
Aruoma OI et al: Iron, copper and zinc concentrations in human sweat and plasma; the
effect of exercise. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Sep 30;177(1):81-7.
Verde T el al: Sweat composition in exercise and in heat. J of Appl Physiol vol 53


  • Perfect Bath

    PerfectBath - Foremost experts in bathroom fixtures and bathroom design and Is known for providing high quality modern bathroom fixtures delivered to peoples door all across Canada. At perfectbath you will find products and information to improve your home such as Steam Showers, Whirlpool Jetted bathtubs, Saunas, Bathroom Vanities, One Piece Toilets, Sinks, and Faucets. Contact us with your questions and comments at 1-866-843-1641

    View all posts
Perfect Bath
Perfect Bath

PerfectBath - Foremost experts in bathroom fixtures and bathroom design and Is known for providing high quality modern bathroom fixtures delivered to peoples door all across Canada. At perfectbath you will find products and information to improve your home such as Steam Showers, Whirlpool Jetted bathtubs, Saunas, Bathroom Vanities, One Piece Toilets, Sinks, and Faucets. Contact us with your questions and comments at 1-866-843-1641

Perfect Bath Canada
Shopping cart